The Eighth Imam Ali Ibn Musa Al Raza as: Born in Madina eleventh Zeeqaad 148 Hijri (1.1.766 AD). Passed on in the city of Tus Iran on seventeenth Safar 203 Hijri (26.5.819 AH) Period of Imamate 20 years.
His granddad Imam Ja’far Al-sadiq (as) passed on multi month before the introduction of Imam Raza’ (as) The family more likely than not been comforted by his introduction to the world which occurred after such an incredible misfortune. He was raised and educated by his friendly dad under whose supervision he passed his childhood and youth. He profited himself of the guidelines of his educated dad for thirty one years, till the later was taken to Baghdad to languish the hardship of detainment over four years till his demise.
Imam Musa Ibn Ja’far (as) could anticipate that the threatening Abbasid ruler would not enable him to live gently and conditions would take such a turn, to the point that his adherents would not have the capacity to see him or enquire about his successor preceding his demise.
So while free and undisturbed in Madinah he wanted to acquaint his successor with his supporters. He, along these lines, amassed seventeen conspicuous dignitaries from the relatives of Imam ‘Ali (as) and broadcasted that his child ‘Ali Ibn Musa (as) would succeed him.
He additionally composed his will on which 60 regarded seniors of Madinah marked as witnesses. Such expounded courses of action were never made by some other Imam and they ended up being most suitable because of the debate about the Imamate which resulted after the passing of Imam Musa Ibn Ja’far (as) .
Imam Raza’ (as) was 35 years of age when his dad kicked the bucket in jail of Harun al-Rashid in Baghdad and the obligations of the Imamate degenerated on him. Around then Harun Al-Rashid was the total leader of Baghdad and the relatives of Imam ‘Ali (as) were going as ever, through hardships as a result of the oppression of the Abbasid ruler.
However Imam Raza’ (as) carried on the obligation of overseeing the Divine Law of Shari’ah as educated by the Holy Prophet and Imams of the Ahlul Bayt after him.
In the wake of putting a conclusion to the life of Imam Musa Ibn Ja’far (as) Harun al-Rashid lived for a long time. He had less resilience for the presence of Imam ‘Ali Raza’ (as) , then he improved the situation his respected dad. In any case, he additionally realized that his Government had officially lost face because of its drawn out abuse and inevitable death of Imam Musa Ibn Ja’far (as) or maybe the despot felt the stings of inner voice which shielded him from hassling the eighth Imam.
It is said that once Yahya Barmaki, his Prime Minister, keeping in mind the end goal to pick up the ruler’s support, educated Harun that Imam ‘Ali Ibn Musa (as) asserted Imamate similarly his dad had done, Harun briskly answered, “We have just incurred brutalities on his dad, do you anticipate that me will demolish this family through and through.
All things considered, Harun was opposing towards the Prophet’s relatives and held on in abuse of a large portion of them in Madina. The nearby Governors of Madina who wished to satisfy the ruler couldn’t stand to be reasonable for Ahlul Bayt. Individuals couldn’t visit the Imam uninhibitedly look for his insight, and he had minimal opportunity to show his devotees straightforwardly, for the eyes of the operators of Caliph concentrated continuously on the exercises of the Imam.
Political wranglings in Baghdad between the two children of Harun were shaking the Empire. His senior child Amin who had an Arab mother had the help of the Arabs and the greater part of the Abbasid older folks, while the more youthful child Mamun had a Persian mother and was upheld by the Persians.
To support the two groups Harun guaranteed from the two his children that after his demise Amin will lead the Arab part of the Empire while Mamun will control the Persian side.
At the point when Harun passed on in faraway Tus, the most northern town of his Persian Empire, Mamun was with him and covered him there. Amin in Baghdad promptly announced himself the Caliph of the entire realm and quickly ousted Mamun from the rulership of the Persian Province. Mamun’s primary concern was to curb the Persian territory under any conditions.
He understood that the larger part of Persians supported the lessons of Ahlul Bayt and if by one means or another he could influence the Imam of the Ahlul Bayt in Madina to agree with him, he could affirm his administer there. When he felt secure on that side of the Empire, he would then ascent against his sibling and effectively dismiss him.
So the requests were conveyed for the Imam to leave his home in Madina and go to the Abbasid ruler in faraway Tus. Imam, as though by some supernatural occurrence comprehended what was to come. So he cleared out his significant other and just child Muhammad Ibn ‘Ali al Jawad, later known as Imam Muhammad Taqi (as) in Madina.
He likewise called numerous senior citizens of Madina generally from Banu Hashim and let them know of his call to go to the station of the Empire to see Mamun. The date of his takeoff was in the period of Rajab 200 Hijri. It was a long trip to Merve and the Imam set out on this pivotal voyage with a portion of his companions who were faithful to him for the duration of his life.
His excursion started from Madina to Makka where he played out the Umra, at that point he took nearly indistinguishable course from Imam Hussain (as) took in 61 hijri towards Karbala’. Part of the way through the slopes of Hejaz when he traversed to the desert of Najd his course changed to that of Imam Hussain (as) and his train moved towards the eastern side and achieved the town of Basra in the period of Shawwal.
From Basra he traversed the Shatt-al-Arab and achieved the Persian soil heading towards the town of Qum. It was in the period of Zilhijja that he achieved Qum where he remained for some time. The long stretch of Muharram the eighth Imam spent in Qum where it is said that he set up out of the blue a Majlis to honor the suffering of Imam Hussain (as).
This was the primary Muharram in 201 Hijri that set the convention of Majlis, starting in Persia the way the Imams of Ahlul Bayt had needed it and the manner in which it was seen in Madina and Makka and all through the region of Hejaz and Najd and to some degree in Iraq where individuals thronged for journey to the Shrine of Imam Hussain (as) .
Subsequent to spending the Month of Muharram in Qum the Imam continued towards the northern piece of Persia crossing the Alburz mountains to the town of Merv where Mamun had settled with his armed force to anchor his domain for him.
It is thought in some recorded circles that the eighth Imam included himself in legislative issues while his predecessors up to the seventh Imam after the affliction of Imam ‘Ali (as) shunned this adventure. Ostensibly it would seem that the Imam was relinquishing the arrangement of his forerunners for the Imam couldn’t be the beneficiary evident to the caliphate without getting to be associated with the governmental issues of the day.
The Imam made careful arrangements, be that as it may, to show that it was not his craving, but rather that he was acting just as per the request he had gotten from Mamun. He appeared to have no real option except to continue on this perilous trip.
In fact in the event that he had declined to continue or demonstrated any hesitance, power would without a doubt have been utilized which would have been all the more embarrassing for the Imam and his family.
Yakubi in his history gave a few subtle elements of this trip. From Qum the Imam moved north to the town of al-beam, the Greek Rhages, which is close to the site of the present city of Tehran. From this place the train proceeded with its trip until the point that it achieved the city of Tus. From Tus they flew out on to the city of Merv, in what is currently present day Turkistan.
On his entry in Merv, Mamun invited him with incredible function and grandeur. Mamun treated the Imam with amazing privilege.
It is said by different history specialists, Both of Shia and Sunni schools of thought, that when Mamun at first offered the Imam his position of royalty, the Imam declined the offer immovably and steadfastly. After a few endeavors to bring the Imam to acknowledge the offer fizzled, Mamun instructed him to acknowledge the offer of being his beneficiary clear to succeed him after Mamun’s passing.
Imam answered to this offer, ” I will acknowledge this to comfort you, however this will never occur for I will leave this world before you.” Once Mamun accomplished his longing to get the assent of the Imam as his successor, he proclaimed this straightforwardly to all so as to see the response of the Abbasid family who were favoring his relative Amin.
As per Yakubi it was on the 27th of Ramadan, in the year 201 Hijri that the Imam was formally assigned as Mamun’s “beneficiary obvious,”( Wali’ahd,) and the Imam’s name was incorporated with his own particular on gold and silver coins. The engraving on these coins is well deserving of notice: “The King of God and the confidence, Al-Mamun, Amir and Khalifa of the steadfast, and Al-Raza’, the Imam of the Muslims.”
This implied more than that the Imam was to be authentic cleric to him for Mamun gathered the relatives of Abbas, people to come to Merv. It was a get together of thirty three thousand and when they all gathered, the caliph Mamun called for ‘Ali al-Raza’ (as) and gave him a position of respect among the best of the Abbasid nobles.
He at that point reported to those he had called, that he had precisely thought to be every one of the relatives of Abbas and furthermore the relatives of ‘Ali, and that he had not found in his pursuit anybody more commendable or more fit to be his successor than ‘Ali al-Raza’.
He in this manner took him by the hand and openly recognized him as his successor(Kulaini). He at that point gave his little girl Umme Habib in marriage. He likewise sent to another country the charge that the wearing of dark banners which was the image of Abbasid manage after the obliteration of the Ummayads, ought to be ended and that from this point forward the utilization of green ought to be substituted. Green being the shade of Ahlul Bayt and the House of ‘Ali (just like) the request of the day.
When this account of progression was reported Mamun’s political desire was accomplished. He anchored the assistance of the Persians completely behind him. With their assistance his armed force attacked the capital of the Abbasid domain, Baghdad, Amin was slaughtered and his head was sent to Mamun to see with his own eyes that he had turned into the sole leader of the Abbasid Empire.
Be that as it may, Mamun was as yet not anchor on his position of royalty. The Arab party who agreed with Amin, never preferred the arrangement of Imam ‘Ali al-Raza’ (as) as the successor of Mamun, regardless of how questionable it looked to them on its substance.
The head of the Abbasid family in Iraq saw that by this arrangement the vital expert in the realm would almost certainly be taken from them. They got together, subsequently, and announced that for handing down the Caliphate after his passing to the Imam ‘Ali Al-Raza’ (as), who was not their close family, Mamun himself was proclaimed ousted.
They swore constancy to Ibrahim al Mehdi, Mamun’s uncle as their new caliph. This decree occurred on the fifth of Muharram 202 Hijri.
While Imam Raza’ was with Mamun in Merv, his Prime Minister Fadl ibn Sahl masterminded a gathering on religions to which he welcomed the pioneers of various orders, including Zoroastrians and Christians and Jews, that they may hear what the Imam of the Ahlul Bayt needed to state to inspire them of their profound capacities and excellences.
It was in these talks with pioneers of different religions that the Imam cleared up the situation of perfection of the Prophets and of the guided Imams. These meetings were successful to the point that at one phase Mamun was frightful of the expanding impacts of the Imam on the general population all in all.
In one such frequency on the event of the Eidul Fitr, the entire system of Mamun and the shear fraud of the show he was playing was uncovered. He had requested that the Imam lead the Eidul Fitr supplications toward the finish of Ramadan that year. First the Imam declined, yet when Mamun demanded, he concurred on the condition that he will coordinate the event as he would consider fit.
On the morning of the Eidul Fitr, when the military and common pioneers gathered outside the entryway of the Imam to turn out and lead the supplications, they saw the Imam leave the house unshod, wearing a white shirt and white headgear. Imam likewise exhorted his sidekicks to tail him in a similar way. He turned out on the Road to the mosque outside the city of Merv.
Every one of the nationals who saw the Imam in this design duplicated him and all strolled shoeless. Indeed, even the military boss and common judges strolled unshod. An immense group took after the Imam. He was stating Takbir uproariously and all were tailing him and yelling Takbir (God is incredible).
The circumstance turned out to be tense to the point that when Mamun was educated of this colossal after of the Imam he promptly sent a demand to the Imam to pull back from driving the Eid supplications. Imam pulled back and it was an awesome show down for the Emperor and presented his guile to the full.
It was after about a year’s stay of the Imam in Merv that Mamun chose to take care of the circumstance in Iraq. He realized that his uncle Ibrahim al Mehdi had been declared as Caliph there in his place. This was a thistle in his heart.
He concluded that it was the ideal opportunity for him to come back from Khorasan and affirm his rights face to face. He had officially reinforced his situation because of the assistance of the Persians. With a gigantic armed force next to him Mamun arranged his adventure back home.
He was went with, as Yakubi notices it in his history, by Imam al Raza’ (as) as his beneficiary evident and by his head administrator Fadl ibn Sahl, who was known as the holder of two workplaces, common and military, being the Prime Minister and in addition the head of the Army.
However, when they achieved the town of Sarakhs, Fadl ibn Sahl was killed in his shower by two people, Ghalib al Rumi and Sarraj al Khadim. They were discovered by Mamun who instantly put them to death promptly that if there was any ramifications of Mamun in this murder it ought not be uncovered.
Mamun had his doubts about his Prime Minister who was covertly picking up support with the Abbasids in Baghdad. Students of history mentioned the name of Mamun in arranging off Fadhl ibn Sahl.
Inside two long stretches of this murder when the armed force achieved the town of Tus, Imam Raza’ fell sick and passed on inside three long periods of his disease. Yakubi revealed that “his infection was close to three days and it was accounted for that Ibn Hisham, Mamun’s most loved cohort had given the Imam poison which caused his passing.
He blended toxin in grapes and when Imam had eaten the grapes he turned out to be sick in indistinguishable way from Imam Hassan did and passed on inside three days.”
Ibn Babawaih relates different reasons that have been alloted to Mamun for harming the Imam and shows likewise the conditions in which Imam ‘Ali Raza’ (as) is said to have assigned his child MuhanmmaRazad ibn ‘Ali as his successor to the Imamate.
Imam ‘Ali Raza’ (as) kicked the bucket and was covered far away from Madina, the home of his ancestors of the Ahlul Bayt of the Prophet. In Sanabad, about a mile from the town where he passed on, they put him in a grave inside the tomb of Harun al-Rashid who was covered there ten years back.
Mamun’s desire to get the Empire under his feet was relatively expert for he realized that the armed force under his summon would not flee from him at this point. So he cunningly slaughtered off the Imam and achieved Baghdad with the announcement that the Caliphate of Banu Abbas would stay in the family. Ibrahim al Mehdi was ousted and later executed and Mamun turned into the preeminent pioneer.
The Eighth Imam Ali Ibn Musa Al Raza as
Normally, the poor who can’t stand to appreciate the joys of life are held in scorn or just endured by the general public. Yet, the individuals who accept a loners’ straightforward severity disregarding riches and influence are the genuine holy people.
The Ahlul Bayt of the Prophet embraced an exceptional approach. Those whose methods were restricted dressed pleasantly on the grounds that generally their foes would insult them as destitutes which would harm the pride of their devotion.
Be that as it may, favored were the individuals who by chance wound up affluent, and who expected effortlessness and gravity so their basic life turned into a wellspring of reassurance for poor people and a model for the rich. This can be shown from the life of Imam ‘Ali (as) . For almost five years he controlled the Muslim world as caliph. He ate and dressed himself as a loner would.
Imam ‘Ali al-Raza’ (as) as well, had a basic existence, however he was the beneficiary clear of the tremendous Arab Empire contrasted with which the Roman Empire or the Persian regions would surely not be a match. A tremendous chain of nations whose caliph’s after watching a passing cloud, would pompously attest: “Go and pour your waters anyplace you please; the incomes of that land will eventually be conveyed to us”.
The arrangement of Imam ‘Ali al – Raza’ (as) as beneficiary obvious showed to the world how the holy people toll when the fortunes of the world are put at their feet. He believed he was will undoubtedly desert wealth and grandeur. History rehashed itself, and the grimness of Imam ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (as) yet again was appeared in the quiet and substance identity of Imam ‘Ali Al-Raza’ (as).
He didn’t care to brighten his home with costly covers, rather he secured its floor with harsh mats amid the winter and grass mats amid the mid year. At the point when sustenance was served, he would call every one of his hirelings, including the guard to sit and eat with him.
Majlisi in Biharul Anwar V 49 Page 101, composes that our eighth Imam demanded eating his dinners simply after the whole individuals from his family, youthful and old, workers and grooms were available. One day somebody who was fonder of illustrious customs than the brotherhood of the Ahlul Bayt, recommended that it is smarter to make isolate eating game plans for the workers, The Imam answered, “All are made by God, Adam is their dad and Eve is their mom. Everybody will be managed by God as indicated by his deeds. For what reason ought to there be any segregation in this world.”
Imam ‘Ali Al-Raza’s’ (as) life contains incalculable stories of this sort. Once a man said to him, “By God, there is none who is better than you in the nobleness of your family line.” The Imam said to him, “My progenitors are respected simply for their Godliness, devotion and love.” Another man once announced,” By God, you are the best on the planet.”
The Imam checked him by saying: “Don’t you proclaim a vow. Any man who is more devout than me can be superior to me.” Imam a few times proclaimed the Hadith of the Prophet that a dark negro slave can be superior to anything a man from my own family if his deeds are better.
Foundation of Majalis to recognize the occasions of Karbala’
As specified before, when Imam ‘Ali Al-Raza was on his excursion to Khorasan he remained in the city of Qom for a couple of months and there he set up these memorial Majalis. In Tus where he remained for over a year as beneficiary evident to the Emperor, Imam restored these Majalis there as well. This convention was started by Imam Muhammad al Baqir (as) and afterward proceeded by the sixth Imam. Be that as it may, amid those occasions, just the individuals who came to visit the Imams in their homes were portrayed these accounts.
In any case, Imam ‘Ali Al-Raza’ (as) was regarded both as Imam and beneficiary clear. Merv, the capital and a focal city of Persia of that time, was the gathering spot of individuals from all kinds of different backgrounds and from all sides of the earth. When the bow of Muharram was located, Majalis of Karbala’ started. Everyone was relied upon to discuss the miserable occasions that came to pass for the Prophet’s relatives and keep up a genuine climate of distress and melancholy.
Imam himself gathered these Majalis in which he discussed first, at that point enabled others to peruse the account of Karbala’. Abdallah ibn Thabit and D’bil al Khuzai were the artists who requested to recount lyrics portraying the disastrous occasions.
Toward the finish of such a majlis the Imam offered on the artist an expensive shirt. The unassuming artist declined to acknowledge such a valuable blessing, asking for that the Imam be benevolent to give him his utilized shirt. The genial holy person demanded conceding him the two shirts, the updated one and his own particular old shirt.
This episode demonstrates two things: First, that the speaker in these majalis must not choose or request any installment for his address, second that if the convener presents something as a blessing or installment, the speaker may acknowledge it.
To get a knowledge into the lives and exercises of the Imam, let me give a couple of stories from the pages of history to build up his way and his conduct with other individuals.
One day a man moved toward the Imam and stated, ” I am one of your adherents and have love for the Ahlul Bayt of the Prophet. I am currently coming back from journey to Makka and I am presently destitute and have no cash to return home.
In the event that you think it appropriate, if it’s not too much trouble give me enough cash with the goal that I can achieve home. In the wake of achieving home, I will give a similar add up to the poor in your name. I am not poor at home, it is amid my movements that I have spent more than I ought to have and turned out to be poverty stricken.
Imam got up, and went inside the house. He at that point called the man to the entryway, expanded his hand from behind the shade and gave him the required sum, saying, “Take these two hundred Dinars. These are your movement costs, and may this present to you the favors of God. There is no compelling reason to give proportional cash to poor people yet in the event that you believe you should then you may offer it to the vagrants and the dowagers of your town.”
The man took the cash and left. The Imam turned out from behind the blind and continued his seat. Individuals asked, “For what reason did you embrace such a path, to the point that the man couldn’t see you while you were giving the cash.” Imam answered, ” I would not like to see the disgrace of supplication all over.” (Ayoun Akhbar al Riza)
Mohammed ibn Sinan reports that amid the caliphate of Haroun, they once cautioned the Imam about announcing his Imamate as the caliph would attempt to hurt him. The Imam answered, ” What gave me strength are the expressions of the Prophet when he stated, ” If Abu Jehl can hurt even a hair of my head, at that point be witness that I am not the errand person of God.”
What’s more, I say that ” if Haroun can hurt even a hair of my head, at that point be witness that I am not a genuine Imam.” (Kafi)
Abu Salt Harvi reports that Imam left Nishapur and achieved a town called Din-Surkh, it was the season of Zohr supplications. Imam slid from the pony he was voyaging and requested water to play out the Zohr petitions. No water was found. At that point the Imam with his heavenly hands burrowed some earth and a spring spouted out Imam and every one of his partners played out the wuzu.
This place close Nishapur is presently called Qadamgah. It is a little hillock. The spring still spouts and individuals who visit this place drink from the spring for gift and for acquiring fixes from affliction and skin illnesses. The place protects the Holy impressions of the Imam on a dark stone. (Akhbar al Riza)
One of the celebrated saying of Imam ‘Ali Al-Riza is,
” This world is a jail for a momin and a heaven for the unbeliever.”
This implies a genuine devotee dependably tries to leave this jail of his body and his Nafs and Ruh needs to escape to the proximity of God, yet the individuals who don’t accept have nothing more distant than their mortal lives and they seek to make it a heaven.
Be that as it may, in the process they make their own particular terrible for their goals are endless wants for gathering material riches.