The Sixth Imam Jafar Ibn Muhammad al Sadiq as: The sixth Imam, Ja’far Ibn Muhammad As-Sadiq (as) was Born in Madinah on seventeenth Rabiul Awwal 83 Hijiri (23.4.702 AD). Kicked the bucket in Madinah on fifteenth Shawwal, 148 Hijri (7.12.765 AD) at 63 years old. Time of Imamate 34 years.
It is known from different history books and different wellsprings of Hadith that when Imam As-Sadiq was a young man, he used to go to the schools and Madrasas established by his dad the fifth Imam and as opposed to learning the same number of different youths and more established understudy did, he used to examine genuine issues of Fiqh and Jurisprudence with significantly more seasoned understudies of the Madrasas.
In one such talks when he was just 11 years of age, when he went into a classroom where understudies were examining regarding the matter of stargazing, he indicated out the amazement of everybody with the exception of his own dad, that the earth can’t be level, on account of the manner in which the sun ascends in the East and sets in the west and day and night change in 24 hours, it can’t be conceivable.
As he would see it the earth must be round, generally this would not have occurred in such an exact way. Every one of the understudies were bewildered yet his dad grinned and said nothing.
The above story was specified in a book ordered by Five French researchers at Strasbourg in France with the title, “The core of the Shia Scholarship.” The book has been interpreted in Persian and Urdu and it is presently being deciphered in English with conceivable references.
Up to the age of twelve years, Ja’far (as) was raised under the direction of his granddad Imam Zainul Abedeen whose fundamental concern was to venerate his producer and consider the terrible occasions of Karbala’ and whose primary road of instructing was through supplications.
Twenty two years had passed from that point forward, yet the recognition of the awfulness of Karbala’ was still new in his memory. Along these lines, when Imam Ja’far (as) increased comprehension, he was significantly inspired by the persistent misery of his granddad, to such an extent that he felt as though he himself was available amid that catastrophe.
He additionally thought about on the nearness of his dad Imam Baqir (as) , who was just three years of age, at that unfortunate time. Imam As-Sadiq (as) thought of it as his obligation to meet the recitation social occasions (Majalis) about the dismal occasion of Karbala’.
He was multi year old when his granddad lapsed. At that point up to the age of 31 he relaxed under the direction of his dad Imam Baqir (as) . It was the time when Ummayad legislative issues was tottering and Muslims were moving toward Imam Baqir (as) in thousands. Their requirement for information was satisfied by the Imams of the Ahlul Bayt.
In 114 Hijri(732 AD) Imam Baqir (as) kicked the bucket, and the duties of Imamate declined on the shoulders of Imam Ja’far Sadiq. Hisham Ibn Abdul Malik was all the while managing in Damascus and political aggravations were hatching. The energy of delivering retribution on Bani Ummaya was solid and a few relatives of Imam ‘Ali (as) were setting themselves up to topple the administration.
Most conspicuous among them was Zaid, the regarded child of Imam Zainul Abedeen (as) His religious energy and devotion were known all through Arabia. He was Hafiz of the Qur’an and he had taken upon himself the remain of expelling the oppression of the Ummayads.
This was an exceptionally shaky point for Imam As-Sadiq (as) concerning the oppression of the Ummayads, he concurred with his uncle Zaid for whom he had a lot of regard. Yet, because of his far located judgment Imam could plainly observe that Zaid’s ascending against the efficient Ummayad powers will be of no profit. He accordingly prompted him not to begin this wander.
Be that as it may, Zaid was too far out in his enthusiasm and he would not stop. A huge number of Iraqis had sworn their steadfastness to Zaid and he was very idealistic about his prosperity. He took his powers to Kufa, gave an awesome fight yet was executed at last. The Ummayads were as fierce as ever. They draped the collection of Zaid on the entryways of the city of Kufa which stayed there as an update for quite a long while.
One year after Zaid’s passing, his child Yahya picked up a similar way and got a similar destiny. Imam As-Sadiq (as) knew about this however understood this was not an opportunity to take any such dynamic part. His fundamental occupation was to spread the religious sciences of Ahlul Bayt however much as could be expected while time was their ally.
The most recent long stretches of the Ummayads were unsettled by political aggravations. Changes in Governors were numerous and Imam As-Sadiq (as) saw the ascent and fall of numerous rulers. After Hisham, Walid, at that point his child Yazid, at that point Ibrahim, at that point Marwan al-Himar went to the position of royalty. The catch of the last ended the government of the domineering Ummayads.
Amid the last period of the tottering Ummayad administer, the Abbasids were effectively occupied with their enemy of Ummayad exercises. They exploited the circumstance and framed a relationship with the motto that ” Right to manage is for the family of the Holy Prophet.”
They promised in one of their gatherings in Madina in which Muhammad Nafse Zakiya, the immense grandson of Imam Hassan (as) was available, that when the Ummayads state topples, the Khilafat will be returned to the Ahlul Bayt. Plainly to control the Islamic world was not the activity of each Hashemite or Abbasid.
It was the privilege of those supernaturally named relatives of the Holy Prophet whom God had driven mankind. Yet, these high-thinking spirits never wished to take undue preferred standpoint of the circumstance with the guide of shrewd strategies. To put it plainly, the Imams, the relatives of ‘Ali (as) never attempted to get control through political cunning.
Be that as it may, the Abbasids no uncertainty accepted the open door of the circumstance. Profiting themselves of the quiet appeared by the Imams and of the empathy individuals had for the Hashemites (the Abbasids too were Hashemites) they saw their odds to ascend to control.
In any case, when they set up themselves on the position of authority, they turned into the foes of Ahlul Bayt, in a similar degree or more than that which had been received by the cutthroat Ummayads.
One of the conspicuous operators of this transformation was Abu Salma al-Khallal who was particularly merciful towards the Ahlul Bayt. When he picked up control in Iraq he composed letters to Imam As-Sadiq welcoming him to acknowledge and share the illustrious power.
In political battles, such open doors are viewed as brilliant, yet the Imam who was an exemplification of magnanimity and sense of pride, declined the offer and stayed committed to his obligations of bestowing learning.
The supporters of the Abbasid cause and the adherents of Abu Muslim Khorasani at that point guaranteed of steadfastness on account of Abul Abbas as Saffah on fourteenth Rabiusani 132 Hijri (30.11.749AD) he was recognized as the ruler and caliph of the Muslim world. In the year 136 Hijri Saffah passed on and his sibling Abu Ja’far Mansur prevailing to the position of authority.
It has just been demonstrated that the Abbasids exploited the fame of the Ahlul Bayt and had made their motto to stand and ensure the privileges of Ahlul Bayt. They assembled people in general around them on this affection. Be that as it may, when they came to control and annihilated the Ummayads, they betrayed the Ahlul Bayt, especially the relatives of Imam Hassan (as).
Abu Salama who was known for his adoration for the Ahlul Bayt, was slaughtered by Saffah. Abu Muslim Khorasani whose armed forces walked into Iraq prompting the Abbasids picking up control was additionally killed by Mansur. He at that point turned all his oppression against the relatives of Imam Hassan.
Imam Jafar Sadiq (as) was observing this with awesome misery yet was not able make a move. He communicated his distress for them in these words.
“The early Madinites (Ansars) had welcomed the Holy Prophet to Madinah under the promise that they would ensure him and his relatives similarly as they would secure their own particular friends and relatives. Be that as it may, today the relatives of those extremely Ansars go about as quiet spectators and none faces secure the Prophet’s posterity.”
Having said these words, the Imam came back to his home and fell sick, and was not able move for twenty days.
Among the detainees of Mansur was likewise the matured Abdullah-e-Mahedh, the grandson of Imam Hassan (as) . His child Muhammad Nafse Zakiyah ascended against the harsh administration and fell battling close Madinah in 142 Hijri. The leader of the youthful warrior was sent to his matured dad in jail who passed on at seeing this terrible demonstration. Another child Ibrahim ascended in Kufa and was murdered in the year 143 Hijri.
Numerous Sayyids, the relatives of Imam Hassan were murdered and a significant number of them were covered alive as a major aspect of the building dividers in the city of Baghdad. Indeed, even today a divider exists on the northern side of the River Tigris close to the Jisre Atiq (the Old Bridge) with an engraving on the divider in Kufic content “In the building material of this divider numerous relatives of Imam Hassan Ibn ‘Ali were covered alive.
Maltreatment of Imam Ja’far Sadiq (as)
Regardless of every one of these barbarities against the Descendants of Imam Hasan (as), Imam As-Sadiq (as) went on quietly proliferating the lessons of Ahlul Bayt. Accordingly, even the individuals who did not recognize him as a trustworthy Imam, nor knew his distinction or heredity, bowed before his insight and prided in being considered as a part of his understudies.
Mansur the Abbasid Caliph needed to expel the regard in which the Imam was held by the general population. He attempted to carry researchers to contend with him yet every one of them demonstrated unequipped for belligerence and succeeding even with his own understudies.
These purported Ulemas of the Durbar all conceded that their partners had obtained the religious gaining from the relatives of the Prophet. The pompous caliph overlooked them and kept on undermining the ubiquity and regard of the Imam by different means. Coming up short this he chose to hassle, capture or to kill him. In each town and city contracted operators were presented on screen the exercises of the adherents of the Imam.
It was as of now that these adherents were given the name of Rafidhoon, i.e. the rejecters. It was Mansur who authored the word Ahlal Sunna wal Jama’ah to advance an order against the adherents of Ahlul Bayt (See Amir ‘Ali, the Spirit of Islam). Any individual who was discovered supporting the Imam would be captured, detained or executed.
The Imam himself was called from Madinah to Baghdad, the recently established Capital of the Abbasid administration. Until the point that then it was Kufa, when exchanged from Damascus after the fall of the Ummayads. Five times he was detracted from Madinah to Baghdad, addressed or bugged in one way or the other.
Mansur would never discover adequate grounds to arrange his detainment or death. Then again the subsequent remain of the Imam in Iraq just extended the hover of the individuals who needed to take in the lessons of Ahlul Bayt from him. Seeing this, Mansur sent him back to Madinah. Indeed, even there, the Imam was not saved from mistreatment and provocation.
The Sixth Imam Jafar Ibn Muhammad al Sadiq as
Character and Virtues
Imam As-Sadiq (as) was one of those faultless Nufus who were made by God to be models of good perfection. The character and lead of each one of those sages in various phases of their lives was the standard of brilliance. The specific excellencies of the Imam which were recorded by the antiquarians included neighborliness, philanthropy, the aiding of the penniless in mystery, the reasonable treatment of poor relatives, pardoning, persistence and courage.
Once a pioneer visiting the Prophet’s Mosque in Madinah, nodded off. On awakening, he speedily looked through his assets and discovered his tote which contained One Thousand Dinars was absent. Checking out he saw the Imam was supplicating in one corner of the Mosque.
He blamed the Imam for having picked his satchel. The Imam got some information about its substance and was informed that it contained one thousand Dinars. The Imam at that point requested that the man tail him to his home where he gave the man a similar sum. At the point when the outsider returned to the mosque fulfilled, yet again he checked his property and found that his handbag was unblemished in another package.
Incredibly embarrassed about his lead, he returned to the Imam, apologized and requesting that he take his cash back. Imam answered with these words, “We never reclaim what we once give away, yet in the event that you feel remorseful about it, offer it to the poor of the town. ” The explorer gave all the cash in Charity to the poor of Madinah.
Amid the times of shortage, when individuals attempted to store nourishment and different products, Imam asked his family unit administrator Trenchab, “The cost of corn is rising step by step. How much corn is there in our distribution center,” Trenchab answered that the Imam ought not stress as there was a vast amount of corn in store.
The Imam answered, “Give it away to poor people and let us confront the circumstance alongside others.” Then he requested that unadulterated white wheat flour ought not be utilized in his kitchen, and ought to be blended with level with amounts of oat flour. “We should impart incident to the penniless and the poor as long as it takes.”
Disseminating knowledge and learning
His significant learning of religion and different sciences was well known all through the whole Islamic world. Individuals originated from far off districts to gain from him. The quantity of his understudies came to more than Four Thousand. Among them were researchers of Jurisprudence, Tafsir, Haidth, for example, Imam Noman container Thabit Abu Hanifa and Imam Mali Ibn Anas.
Heads of different religions likewise came there to talk about with the Imams understudies numerous issues of debate and on numerous events returned home grasping Islam. At times he himself contended with the rivals particularly nonbelievers. Aside from religious sciences, he used to instruct to a few understudies arithmetic, science, medication and cosmology. Jabir Ibn Hayyan, the renowned pioneer of material science, science and arithmetic, was his supporter who expounded on four hundred treatises in light of his guide’s directions.
The legal scholars who learnt from him and composed a few volumes of books on law can be tallied by the hundreds.
Maybe the most fascinating of every one of his students was Abu Hanifa who gave open addresses at Kufa that pulled in much consideration. In giving choices, he guaranteed the privilege to practice the benefit of derivation (Qiyas) and of utilizing his own judgment (Ra’y) to supplement the customs and for this takeoff he was extremely reprimanded by the researchers in Makka and Madina.
His choices were on the purpose of law of Islam, anyway he immovably declined to enter the administration of the Government as judge. Hence it was as an artistic or scholarly legal adviser that he could bear on his work in Kufa under both the Ummayads and the Abbasids.
It is plausible that he emphatically identified with the Alawids and despised the manner by which they had been put aside. Masudi specifies in his history that once he had sent 10,000 Dinars to Zaid Ibn ‘Ali to help him against the Ummayads.
One is astounded to see that these two contemporary researchers could bear on instructing in their individual urban areas, Abu Hanifa in Kufa and Imam Ja’far Sadiq (as) in Madina. The two men were on cordial terms with each other and frequently Abu Hanifa acknowledged the counsel of his educator Imam Ja’far Sadiq (as)
Ibn Khalikan relates a tale around a tale that the Imam Ja’far Sadiq (as) had with his contemporary legal adviser of Kufa. The Imam asked, ” What might you say is the correct fine for one who breaks the front molars (Rubaiyat) of a deer”? Abu Hanifa replied, O’son of the Apostle of God I don’t have a clue about the appropriate response.
To this the Imam answered, “Can you at that point profess to learning and grant when you don’t have the foggiest idea about that a deer has no front molars, however just the incisors” (Thanaya).
On another event, Abu Hanifa commented that if the Imam did not show three things he would have the capacity to acknowledge him.
- Great is from God and abhorrence is from the deeds of men, ” while I say that men must choose between limited options however both great and underhandedness are from God.
- In the last judgment the fallen angel endures in the fire,” though I say that the fire won’t consume him, in to such an extent as a similar material won’t harm itself (the Devil being from flame) “
- it is difficult to see God in this world or the following, though I say that any individual who has presence might be seen, if not in this world, at that point in the following”. Now Shaikh Buhlul who was one of Imam’s sidekicks, yet put on a show to be a moronic individual, grabbed a lump of earth and hit Abu Hanifa on the head, pronouncing as he made the hurried leave, that every one of the three focuses are disproved.
Abu Hanifa made a grumbling about him to the caliph who called Buhlul before him and asked him, for what reason did you toss the hunk of earth at Abu Hanifa. He replied, “I didn’t toss it”. Abu Hanifa challenged, “you threw it”.
Be that as it may, Buhlul answered, “you yourself have kept up that abhorrent is from God that men must choose between limited options, so for what reason do you point the finger at me? What’s more, you have additionally said that a similar material won’t harm itself. The villain is from flame and fire of damnation would not hurt him. In like manner you are from residue of the earth, disclose to me how it could harm you? You have likewise asserted that you can consider God to be a proof of his reality. Demonstrate to me the torment you are griping about that exists in your mind ?”
Abu Hanifa had no response to that and he in the end consented to what Imam Ja’far Sadiq (as) educated about these things.
By and by Abu Hanifa was profoundly regarded by those companions of Ahlul Bayt for they generously supported a comment made by Abu Hanifa concerning Mansur and every such oppressor whether of the Banu Umayya or Banu Abbas. Abu Hanifa smoothly proclaimed that if such men would manufacture a Masjid and summon him to the basic assignment of tallying the blocks, he would not do it, “for they are debauched (Fasiq) and the lewd are not deserving of the specialist of administration (Majlisi,Tarikhul Aiemma).
At last Mansur heard this comment and cast Abu Hanifa into jail where he stayed until his demise. Abu Hanifa’s comments depended on the Verse in the Qur’an (Surah II,V 118) where God said to Abraham,” I am going to make thee an Imam to humankind”, and Abraham asked, “of my posterity additionally”, however God replied, “My agreement embraceth not the misguided worshipers”.
On the topic of the flexibility of will (Irada) which was significantly under talk at the time, the Imam educated, “that God has announced a few things for us and He has moreover proclaimed a few things through our office, What He declared for us or for our sake He has hidden from us, yet what He has proclaimed through our office He has uncovered to us. We are not concerned, hence, such a great amount with what he has proclaimed for us, as we are with what he has declared through our organization.”
With regards to the subject of the power (Qadr) of guiding one’s own behavior, the Imam took a center position, which is neither impulse (Jabr) nor conferring (Tafviz) the decision to ourselves. He was acquainted with say in prayer,”O’ God, thine is the acclaim that I give thee, and to thee is the reason on the off chance that I sin against thee. There is no work of legitimacy all alone benefit, or for another, and in malicious there is no reason for me or for another”.
Yakubi in his Tarikh comments concerning Imam Ja’far Sadiq (as) that , “it was standard for researchers who related anything from him to state ‘the scholarly one educated us’.” When we review that Malik ibn Anas (94-179) the writer of Mawatta was a contemporary of the Imam Ja’far Sadiq (as) , no less than a century prior to the season of Bukhari and Muslim, it is noteworthy to find that it is the Imam Ja’far Sadiq (as) who is attributed with expressing what came to be viewed as the most critical and imperative guideline to see in judging customs: “What is in concurrence with the Book of God, acknowledge it, and whatever is opposite, dismiss it”.
Yakubi additionally relates another truism of the Imam as takes after;
“There are two companions, and whoever tails them will enter heaven”, Someone asked, ” Who are they?” He stated, “The acknowledgment of that which you detest when God likes it, and the dismissal of that which you like when God despises it.”
Masudi, the popular history specialist, kept in touch with a standout amongst the most vital adages of Imam As-Sadiq (as) credited through Imam ‘Ali (as) who is said to have related that when God wished to set up the creation, the iotas of animals and the start of all made things, He initially made what he made as little particles.
This was previously the earth and the sky were made. God existed alone in His power and power. So He cast forward a beam of light, a fire from His magnificence and it was brilliant. He scattered this light amidst undetectable particles, which He at that point joined as our Prophet. God most high at that point pronounced unto him, “you are the first of the individuals who will talk, the one with intensity of decision and the one picked.
To you I have confided in my light and the fortune of my direction. For your purpose I will frame extensive channels, give free course to the waters, and raise the sky. For your purpose I will give prizes and disciplines, and appoint men to Paradise or to the Fire. I will designate the general population of your family unit (Ahlul Bayt) for direction.
I will offer to them the privileged insights of my insight. No reality will be avoided them and no secret disguised. I will assign them as my confirmation to humanity, as the individuals who will advise men of my capacity and help them to remember my Unity (Tawheed)”.
“The light slipped,” the Imam Ja’far proceeded, “upon our most honorable men, and appeared through our Imams, so we are in actuality the light of Heaven and of Earth. To us is salvation dedicated, and from us are the mysteries of science determined, for we are the goal that all must endeavor to reach.
Our Mehdi will be the last confirmation, the seal of the Imams, the Deliverer of the Imamate, the Apex of the Light, and the Source of all great work. The individuals who tail us will have our help in the great beyond.”
Imam kicked the bucket in the tenth year of the rule of Caliph Mansur, 148 Hijiri(765 AD). He had worn a seal ring with the engraving,” God is my lord and my protection from His creation.” He lived to be 65 years of age. It is specified by antiquarians that on Caliph’s requests he was given toxic substance in grapes which caused his passing.
Imam Ja’far Sadiq (as) was covered in the graveyard of Baqee in Madina by the side of his dad Imam Muhammad Baqir (as) . Before the annihilation of the Baqee burial ground by the Wahhabis, the engraving on the tomb stated, “Here is the Tomb of Imam Ja’far Ibn Muhammad al Sadiq.”